ANOMALOUS -Requirements for testing, documentation and evaluation of anomalies of photovoltaic module backsheets
In the project ANOMALOUS HI ERN is partnering with Fraunhofer-Center für Silizium-Photovoltaik (CSP), Hochschule Anhalt (HSA), Zentrum für Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden-Württemberg (ZSW), Aluminium Féron GmbH & Co. KG (Feron), HaWe Engineering GmbH (HaWe), Sunset Energietechnik GmbH (Sunset), Deutsche Kommission Elektrotechnik Elektronik Informationstechnik in DIN und VDE (DKE) to develop standards for classifying backsheet failures. The project is funded by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi) as part of the WiPaNo program ("Knowledge and technology transfer through patents and standards") (FKZ: 03EE1090B). As part of the funding HI ERN receives almost 141.278 Euros over a period of 2 years.
Recurring inspections of photovoltaic (PV) systems have recorded a significant increase in module defects triggered by the backsheets in recent years. Abnormalities in backsheet films, such as chalking, delamination, cracking or browning, usually lead to failure of the insulating effects and thus pose a safety risk.
While existing standards and regulations for safety testing mainly focus on the function of new products, and research is working to prevent long-term failures in the future by intensively studying the aging behavior of films and that of embedding materials, there is a lack of standardization documents that address the acute problems of backsheet film quality in existing PV systems.
In Germany, there are currently about 53 GWp of PV systems connected to the grid, a large portion of which are now more than five years old and increasingly showing abnormalities in the backsheet film. Some of the observed anomalies are merely cosmetic at this stage, while others pose an inherent electrical risk as live parts are exposed. In addition to electrical safety, a defective backsheet can also result in significant yield loss by shutting down parts of the system.
However, there is a lack of recommendations for action in the form of standardized rules and criteria regarding defective backsheet foils. The ANOMALOUS project addresses precisely this deficiency.
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